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Station Characteristics 2009-01-19/-147256320
GAW ID SPO South Pole (United States)
WMO ID Global station in WMO RA VII - Antarctica
station status established 1972 / full operation 89.99695°S 24.80000°W (2841 m a.s.l.)
time zone UTC-2 http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/obop/spo/index.html
climate zone EF (Frost climate)  
other affiliations AERONET(South_Pole_Obs_NOAA), BSRN, NOAA-ESRL/CCG, NOAA-ESRL/AERO(SPO), GALION, NDACC
description The South Pole Observatory was established at the geographical south pole at 2837 m above sea level in 1957 as part of the International Geophysical Year. The South Pole Observatory (SPO) is one of five atmospheric baseline observatories for NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division (GMD). The National Science Foundation provides the infrastructure for the NOAA/ESRL scientific operations including a state of the art science building named the Atmospheric Research Observatory opened in 1997. ARO was built to house current atmospheric research and replaced NOAA's Clean Air Facility in operation from 1977 to 1997. Two GMD observatory staff spend one year tours of duty at the station which includes a 9 month period of isolation and six months of darkness. Atmospheric data has been collected from South Pole since the International Geophysical Year (IGY), 1957 - 1958. Picture of South Pole facility

Measurement Program
type data center parameter method contributor data available details
Ozone WOUDC Surface ozone Chemiluminescence (CL) [general] NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1974-03-21 ~ 1974-11-16
WOUDC Surface ozone ECC Sonde NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1975-01-23 ~ 1978-12-31
WOUDC Surface ozone UV photometry [general] NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1979-01-01 ~ 1986-12-31
WDCGG Surface ozone UV photometry [general] NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1975-01-01 ~ 2014-03-31
NDACC Total column ozone Dobson NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1963-12-01 ~ 2013-06-30
WOUDC Total column ozone Dobson NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1961-11-17 ~ 2012-12-28
WOUDC Total column ozone Brewer NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2008-02-10 ~ 2012-10-31
WOUDC Total column ozone Dobson NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2008-02-10 ~ 2012-11-30
WOUDC Vertical ozone profile Carbon-Iodine Sonde NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1966-03-27 ~ 1966-12-14
WOUDC Vertical ozone profile Regener Sonde NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1962-03-26 ~ 1966-01-10
NDACC Vertical ozone profile Microwave radiometry SUNY 1993-02-09 ~ 1995-12-09
NDACC Vertical ozone profile ## Sonde NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1990-11-03 ~ 2014-03-31
WOUDC Vertical ozone profile ## Sonde NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1967-01-17 ~ 1987-12-30
Aerosol WDCA Light backscattering coefficient, total aerosol Light scattering 2002-12-07 ~ 2014-01-01
Light backscattering coefficient, total aerosol Nephelometry, integrating NOAA-ESRL-GMD
WDCA Light scattering coefficient, total aerosol Light scattering 1979-01-12 ~ 2002-12-07
WDCA Light scattering coefficient, total aerosol Light scattering 1974-01-01 ~ 2002-12-07
WDCA Light scattering coefficient, total aerosol Light scattering 1974-01-01 ~ 2014-01-01
Light scattering coefficient, total aerosol Nephelometry, integrating NOAA-ESRL-GMD
Light scattering coefficient, total aerosol Nephelometry, integrating NOAA-ESRL-GMD
WDCA Number concentration Condensation particle counter (CPC) 1989-01-01 ~ 2014-01-01
WDCA Number concentration Condensation particle counter (CPC) 1974-01-01 ~ 1989-01-01
Number concentration Condensation particle counter (CPC) NOAA-ESRL-GMD
Number concentration Condensation particle counter (CPC) NOAA-ESRL-GMD
Greenhouse Gas WDCGG C2Cl3F3 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, CFC-113) ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1977-01-01 ~ 2014-01-08
WDCGG C2Cl3F3 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, CFC-113) GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1987-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
WDCGG C2H2F4 (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, HFC-134a) GC-MS NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1994-03-03 ~ 2014-01-08
WDCGG C2H3Cl2F (1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, HCFC-141b) ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1992-07-04 ~ 2014-01-08
WDCGG C2H3ClF2 (1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, HCFC-142b) ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1992-07-04 ~ 2014-01-08
WDCGG C2H3ClF2 (1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, HCFC-142b) GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1998-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
WDCGG C2H4F2 (1,1-difluoroethane, HFC-152a) GC-MS NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1994-03-03 ~ 2014-01-08
WDCGG CBrClF2 (Halon 1211) GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1998-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
WDCGG CBrClF2 (Halon 1211) GC-MS NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1992-07-03 ~ 2014-01-08
WDCGG CBrF3 (bromotrifluoromethane, Halon 1301) GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1990-01-03 ~ 2006-12-01
WDCGG CCl2F2 (dichlorodifluoromethane, CFC-12) ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1977-01-01 ~ 2014-01-08
WDCGG CCl2F2 (dichlorodifluoromethane, CFC-12) GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1987-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
WDCGG CCl3F (trichlorofluoromethane, CFC-11) ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1977-01-01 ~ 2014-01-08
WDCGG CCl3F (trichlorofluoromethane, CFC-11) GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1987-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
WDCGG CCl4 GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1987-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
WDCGG CCl4 ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1995-01-13 ~ 2013-12-01
WDCGG CH3CCl3 (1,1,1-trichloroethane) ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1992-07-04 ~ 2014-01-08
WDCGG CH3CCl3 (1,1,1-trichloroethane) GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1987-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
WDCGG CH4 ## Flask sampling CSIRO 1991-03-01 ~ 2013-12-17
WDCGG CH4 ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1983-02-01 ~ 2013-12-26
WDCGG CH4 [C-13] ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1998-01-01 ~ 2011-12-26
WDCGG CHClF2 (chlorodifluoromethane, HCFC-22) ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1992-07-04 ~ 2014-01-08
WDCGG CHClF2 (chlorodifluoromethane, HCFC-22) GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1998-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
WDCGG CO2 Non-dispersive IR (NDIR) NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1974-01-01 ~ 2013-12-31
WDCGG CO2 ## Flask sampling CSIRO 1991-03-01 ~ 2013-12-17
WDCGG CO2 ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1975-01-21 ~ 2013-12-26
WDCGG CO2 [C-13] ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1993-03-01 ~ 2012-12-24
WDCGG CO2 [C-13] Mass Spectrometry (MS) [general] CSIRO 1990-02-01 ~ 2013-12-01
WDCGG CO2 [O-18] ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1993-03-01 ~ 2012-12-24
WDCGG N2O GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1987-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
NDACC N2O Microwave radiometry SUNY 1993-02-09 ~ 1995-12-03
WDCGG N2O ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1977-01-01 ~ 2013-12-01
WDCGG N2O ## Flask sampling CSIRO 1991-03-01 ~ 2013-12-17
WDCGG SF6 GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1998-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
WDCGG SF6 ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1995-01-01 ~ 2013-12-01
Reactive Gas WDCGG C2Cl4 ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1993-02-08 ~ 2014-01-08
WDCGG C2H6 (ethane) GC-FID NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2005-01-28 ~ 2013-01-15
WDCGG C3H8 (propane) GC-FID NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2005-01-28 ~ 2013-01-15
WDCGG CH2Cl2 (dichloromethane) ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1995-10-18 ~ 2014-01-08
WDCGG CH3Br (methylbromide) GC-MS NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1995-10-18 ~ 2014-01-08
WDCGG CH3Cl (methylchloride) GC-MS NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1995-10-18 ~ 2014-01-08
WDCGG CH3Cl (methylchloride) GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1998-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
WDCGG CO ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1989-12-15 ~ 2013-12-26
WDCGG CO ## Flask sampling CSIRO 1991-03-01 ~ 2013-12-17
NDACC HNO3 (nitric acid) Microwave radiometry SUNY 1993-04-15 ~ 1995-12-04
WDCGG i-C4H10 (2-methylpropane, iso-butane) GC-FID NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2005-01-28 ~ 2013-01-15
WDCGG i-C5H12 (2-methylbutane, iso-pentane) GC-FID NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2005-01-28 ~ 2013-01-15
WDCGG n-C4H10 (n-butane) GC-FID NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2005-01-28 ~ 2013-01-15
WDCGG n-C5H12 (n-pentane) GC-FID NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2005-01-28 ~ 2013-01-15
Other Gas WDCGG H2 ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1989-12-15 ~ 2005-07-01
WDCGG H2 ## Flask sampling CSIRO 1991-03-01 ~ 2013-12-17
Radiation Diffuse solar radiation Pyranometer (global solar, broadband) unknown
Direct solar radiation Pyrheliometer (direct solar, broadband) unknown
Global solar radiation Pyranometer (global solar, broadband) unknown
Long-wave radiation (direction unspecified) Pyrgeometer (global, infrared) unknown
NDACC UV Erythemally weighted UV spectrometry/radiometry Biospherical 1990-10-17 ~ 2012-10-31
WOUDC UV Multiband UV radiometry NSF 2003-01-17 ~ 2010-03-25
WOUDC UV Spectral UV radiometry NSF 1990-10-17 ~ 2010-04-01
Radio Nuclide CO2 [C-14] ## Flask sampling unknown
Meteo WDCA Humidity 1979-01-12 ~ 2002-12-07
WDCA Humidity 1974-01-01 ~ 2013-01-01
Pressure Barometer/Pressure sensor unknown
Temperature Thermometer/-element unknown
Trajectories ## Numerical Model NOAA-ESRL-GMD
Trajectories FLEXTRA Empa 2005-01-01 ~ ongoing
Wind direction Wind vane unknown
Wind speed Anemometer [general] unknown

Contact Person(s)
name Colin Allison
address CSIRO Division of Marine and Atmospheric Research - Aspendale
Private Bag 1
Aspendale, VIC 3195
Australia
2009-12-15/0
phone
fax
mailto Colin.Allison@csiro.au
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Greenhouse Gas: CO2 [C-13]]

name Mr. Germar Bernhard
address Biospherical Instruments Inc.
5340 Riley St.
San Diego, CA 92110
United States
2011-02-11/2141913886
phone +1 619 686 1888
fax
mailto bernhard@biospherical.com
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Radiation: UV Erythemally weighted]

name Dr. James Butler
address NOAA/ESRL/GMD
325 Broadway
Boulder, CO 80303
United States
2008-01-03/-147256505
phone +1 303 497 6898
fax +1 303 492 6975
mailto james.h.butler@noaa.gov
url
GAW function
station function

name Robert De Zafra
address Department of Physics and Astronomy, State University of New York at Stony Brook


United States
2013-07-14/0
phone
fax
mailto robert.dezafra@stonybrook.edu
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Greenhouse Gas: N2O, Ozone: Vertical ozone profile, Reactive Gas: HNO3 (nitric acid)]

name Mr. Geoffrey S. Dutton
address Halocarbons and Other Atmosphere Trace Species Group (HATS)/NOAA/ESRL Global Monitoring Division
325 Broadway R/GMD1
Boulder, Colorado 80305-3328
United States
2008-12-16/-147256320
phone +1-303-497-6224
fax +1-303-497-6290
mailto geoff.dutton@noaa.gov
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Greenhouse Gas: C2Cl3F3 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, CFC-113), Greenhouse Gas: C2H3ClF2 (1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, HCFC-142b), Greenhouse Gas: CBrClF2 (Halon 1211), Greenhouse Gas: CCl2F2 (dichlorodifluoromethane, CFC-12), Greenhouse Gas: CCl3F (trichlorofluoromethane, CFC-11), Greenhouse Gas: CCl4, Greenhouse Gas: CH3CCl3 (1,1,1-trichloroethane), Greenhouse Gas: CHClF2 (chlorodifluoromethane, HCFC-22), Greenhouse Gas: N2O, Greenhouse Gas: SF6, Reactive Gas: CH3Cl (methylchloride)]

name Dr. James W. Elkins
address NOAA ESRL Global Monitoring Division
325 Broadway R/GMD
Boulder, CO 80305-332
United States
2011-01-17/0
phone +1 (303) 497-6224
fax +1 (303) 497-6290
mailto James.W.Elkins@noaa.gov
url www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats/personnel/elkins/elkins1.html
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Greenhouse Gas: C2Cl3F3 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, CFC-113), Greenhouse Gas: C2H2F4 (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, HFC-134a), Greenhouse Gas: C2H3Cl2F (1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, HCFC-141b), Greenhouse Gas: C2H3ClF2 (1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, HCFC-142b), Greenhouse Gas: C2H4F2 (1,1-difluoroethane, HFC-152a), Greenhouse Gas: CBrClF2 (Halon 1211), Greenhouse Gas: CBrF3 (bromotrifluoromethane, Halon 1301), Greenhouse Gas: CCl2F2 (dichlorodifluoromethane, CFC-12), Greenhouse Gas: CCl3F (trichlorofluoromethane, CFC-11), Greenhouse Gas: CCl4, Greenhouse Gas: CH3CCl3 (1,1,1-trichloroethane), Greenhouse Gas: CHClF2 (chlorodifluoromethane, HCFC-22), Greenhouse Gas: N2O, Greenhouse Gas: SF6, Reactive Gas: C2Cl4, Reactive Gas: CH2Cl2 (dichloromethane), Reactive Gas: CH3Br (methylbromide), Reactive Gas: CH3Cl (methylchloride)]

name Mr. Robert D. Evans
address NOAA Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL) Global Monitoring Division
325 Broadway
Boulder, Colorado 80305
United States
2012-05-10/2141914043
phone +1 303 497 6679
fax +1 303 497 5590
mailto Robert.D.Evans@noaa.gov
url
GAW function Member of SAG Ozone, World Calibration Centre, GAW CCL (Reference Scale)
station function Measurement leader [Ozone: Total column ozone]

name Dr. Detlev Helmig
address Associate Research Professor Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) University of Colorado
1560 30th Street
Boulder, CO 80309-0450
United States
2013-01-24/-147256377
phone +1 (303) 492-2509
fax
mailto detlev@instaar.colorado.edu
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Reactive Gas: C2H6 (ethane), Reactive Gas: C3H8 (propane), Reactive Gas: i-C4H10 (2-methylpropane, iso-butane), Reactive Gas: i-C5H12 (2-methylbutane, iso-pentane), Reactive Gas: n-C4H10 (n-butane), Reactive Gas: n-C5H12 (n-pentane)]

name Mr. Bryan Johnson
address NOAA/ESRL Global Monitoring Division
325 Broadway R/GMD1
CO 80305-3328 Boulder
United States
2011-08-11/2141913899
phone
fax
mailto Bryan.Johnson@noaa.gov
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Ozone: Vertical ozone profile]

name Mr. Paul Krummel
address CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research
PMB No. 1
Aspendale, Victoria 3195
Australia
2009-08-31/0
phone +61392394568
fax +61392394444
mailto paul.krummel@csiro.au
url
GAW function SAG member, Member of SAG Greenhouse Gases
station function Measurement leader [Greenhouse Gas: CH4, Greenhouse Gas: CO2, Greenhouse Gas: N2O, Other Gas: H2, Reactive Gas: CO]

name Dr. Paul C. Novelli
address NOAA-ESRL-GMD
325 Broadway
Boulder, CO 80305
United States
2012-01-12/2141914043
phone +1 303-497-6774
fax +1 303-497-6290
mailto paul.c.novelli@noaa.gov
url
GAW function Member of SAG Reactive Gases
station function Measurement leader [Other Gas: H2, Reactive Gas: CO]

name Dr. John A. Ogren
address NOAA ESRL GMD
325 Broadway
Boulder, CO 80305
United States
2011-02-01/0
phone +1 (303) 497 6210
fax +1 (303) 497-5590
mailto John.A.Ogren@noaa.gov
url
GAW function Joint Scientific Committee OPAG EPAC, Member of SAG Aerosol
station function Measurement leader [Aerosol: Light backscattering coefficient, total aerosol, Aerosol: Light scattering coefficient, total aerosol, Aerosol: Light scattering coefficient, total aerosol, Aerosol: Number concentration, Aerosol: Number concentration]

name Paulene Roberts
address National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration, Climate Monitoring & Diagnostics Laboratory, Clean Air Facility S-257
South Pole PSC 468 Box 402
96598-5402 FPO AP
United States
2001-08-30/jkl
phone
fax
mailto robertpa@spole.gov
url
GAW function
station function Primary station contact

name Dr. Russ Schnell
address National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory, Global Monitoring Division, Observatory Operations Group
325 Broadway R/GMD1
Boulder, Colorado 80305
United States
2007-12-13/186
phone +1 (303) 497 6733
fax +1 (303) 497 6290
mailto russell.c.schnell@noaa.gov
url
GAW function
station function Primary station contact

name Kirk Thoning
address NOAA/ESRL Global Monitoring Division
325 Broadway R/GMD1
Boulder, CO 80305-3328
United States
2006-06-20/0
phone +1 303 497 6078
fax
mailto kirk.w.thoning@noaa.gov
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Greenhouse Gas: CO2]

name Mr. Brian A. Vasel
address National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory
325 Broadway R/GMD1
Boulder, Colorado 80305
United States
2012-02-01/2141914043
phone 303-497-6655
fax
mailto brian.vasel@noaa.gov
url
GAW function
station function

name Mr. Bruce Vaughn
address University of Colorado Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR)
Campus box 450
Boulder, CO 80309-0450
United States
2006-06-12/0
phone +1-303-492-7985
fax +1-303-492-6388
mailto bruce.vaughn@colorado.edu
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Greenhouse Gas: CH4 [C-13], Greenhouse Gas: CO2 [C-13], Greenhouse Gas: CO2 [O-18]]


References
Wolff, E.W. and Cachier, H. (1998), Concentrations and seasonal cycle of black carbon in aerosol at a coastal Antarctic station, Journal of Geophysical Research, 103, 11--033
Bodhaine, B.A. (1995), Aerosol absorption measurements at Barrow, Mauna Loa and the South Pole, J. Geophys. Res, 100, 8967--8975
ROSEN, J., et al. (1993), Simultaneous ozone and polar stratospheric cloud observations at South Pole Station during winter and spring 1991, Journal of Geophysical Research, 98, 12--741
BODHAINE, B., et al. (1986), Aerosol measurements at the South Pole, Tellus, Series B-Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 38, 223--235
Zoller, WH, et al. (1974), Atmospheric Concentrations and Sources of Trace Metals at the South Pole, Science, 183, 198--200
 
 
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