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Station Characteristics 2014-05-29/-147256345
GAW ID BKT Bukit Kototabang (Indonesia)
WMO ID 96169 Global station in WMO RA V - South West Pacific
station status established 1996-09-01 / full operation 0.20194°S 100.31805°E (864 m a.s.l.)
time zone UTC+7 http://gaw-kototabang.com/index_en.php
climate zone Af (Equatorial rainforest, fully humid)  
other affiliations EANET, NOAA-ESRL/CCG
description The Global GAW station Bukit Kototabang is located on the island Sumatra, Indonesia (0° 12' 07" S - 100° 19' 05" E). The station is roughly 17 km north of the town Bukittinggi (population: 85'000) and around 120 km north of Padang which the capital of the province West Sumatra. The remote station Bukit Kototabang (which means The Hill of Flying City) is situated in the equatorial zone on the ridge of a high plateau at an altitude of 864.5 m a.s.l., and 40 km off the western coastline. The prevailing winds are blowing either from south-south-east (December to May) or from north-north-west (May to October). The temperature varies from 16 to 25 °C with only slight annual variation and the relative humidity is usually higher than 80%. The facilities at the site consist of a large one-storey building, which provides excellent space for offices, meeting room and laboratories. On the 300 m2 flat roof, the air inlet and several radiation and meteorological equipment are mounted. The station is reached over a small access road which is closed to the public and is a few kilometres off the westerly main road (moderate traffic) between Padang and Medan. The vegetation in the surrounding area (30 km) consists mainly of tropical forest. However, the small access road to the station enabled farmers to develop the area. The station responsible has asked the West Sumatra authorities for support about the concerns regarding the altering of the surrounding environment. Picture of Bukit Kototabang facility

Measurement Program
type data center parameter method contributor data available details
Ozone WDCGG Surface ozone UV photometry [general] BMKG-Empa 1996-09-01 ~ 2013-12-31
Aerosol Light absorption coefficient, total aerosol Light absorption photometry BMKG
Light absorption coefficient, total aerosol Light absorption photometry unknown
WDCA Light backscattering coefficient, total aerosol Light scattering 2012-09-10 ~ 2013-12-29
Light backscattering coefficient, total aerosol Nephelometry, integrating unknown
WDCA Light scattering coefficient, total aerosol Light scattering 2012-09-10 ~ 2013-12-29
Light scattering coefficient, total aerosol Nephelometry, integrating CSIRO
Light scattering coefficient, total aerosol Nephelometry, integrating unknown
WDCA Mass concentration (coarse) or Mass PM10 2011-01-01 ~ 2012-01-01
Mass concentration (coarse) or Mass PM10 Filter + beta attenuation (betameter, beta gauge) BMKG
Mass concentration (total aerosol) or Mass TSP Ion Chromatography (IC) [general] BMKG
Multiwavelength optical depth, total aerosol Filter + light attenuation (aethalometer) unknown
Greenhouse Gas WDCGG CH4 ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-01-01 ~ 2013-12-31
WDCGG CH4 Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) BMKG-Empa 2009-01-01 ~ 2013-12-31
CO2 Non-dispersive IR (NDIR) unknown
WDCGG CO2 ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-01-01 ~ 2013-12-31
WDCGG CO2 Cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) BMKG-Empa 2009-01-01 ~ 2013-12-31
WDCGG CO2 [C-13] ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-01-01 ~ 2011-02-22
WDCGG CO2 [O-18] ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-01-01 ~ 2011-02-22
N2O Laser spectroscopy [general] unknown
WDCGG N2O ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-01-08 ~ 2010-03-02
WDCGG SF6 ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-01-08 ~ 2010-03-02
Reactive Gas WDCGG C2H6 (ethane) GC-FID NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2006-01-24 ~ 2010-12-21
WDCGG C3H8 (propane) GC-FID NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2006-01-24 ~ 2010-12-21
WDCGG CO Non-dispersive IR (NDIR) BMKG-Empa 2001-07-01 ~ 2013-12-31
WDCGG CO ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-01-01 ~ 2013-12-31
WDCGG i-C4H10 (2-methylpropane, iso-butane) GC-FID NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2006-01-24 ~ 2010-12-21
WDCGG i-C5H12 (2-methylbutane, iso-pentane) GC-FID NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2006-01-24 ~ 2010-12-21
WDCGG n-C4H10 (n-butane) GC-FID NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2006-01-24 ~ 2010-12-21
WDCGG n-C5H12 (n-pentane) GC-FID NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2006-01-24 ~ 2010-12-21
WDCGG NO2 Light absorption photometry BMKG 1996-01-01 ~ 2005-07-19
WDCGG SO2 Ion Chromatography (IC) [general] BMKG 1996-01-01 ~ 2005-07-19
Other Gas WDCGG H2 ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-01-08 ~ 2010-03-02
Precipitation Chem Acidity/Alkalinity Ion Chromatography (IC) [general] BMKG 1996-01-01 ~
Electric conductivity ## unknown/unspecified BMKG
Hydrogen ion (H+) or pH Potentiometry (pH meter) BMKG
Radiation WRDC Diffuse solar radiation Eppley precision spectral pyranometer BMKG 1996-01-01 ~ 2014-07-31
WRDC Direct solar radiation Eppley normal incidence radiometer (NIP) BMKG 1996-01-01 ~ 2014-07-31
WRDC Global solar radiation Eppley precision spectral pyranometer BMKG 1996-01-01 ~ 2014-07-31
UV Broadband Pyranometer (global solar, broadband) BMKG
UV Broadband ## unknown/unspecified unknown
UV Spectral Eppley precision spectral pyranometer unknown
Meteo Humidity Automatic weather station (AWS) BMKG
Pressure Automatic weather station (AWS) BMKG
Temperature Automatic weather station (AWS) BMKG
Trajectories FLEXTRA Empa 2005-01-01 ~ ongoing
Wind direction Automatic weather station (AWS) BMKG
Wind speed Automatic weather station (AWS) BMKG

Contact Person(s)
name Dr. Dodo Gunawan
address Director, Centre for Climate Change and Air Quality BMKG
Jl. Angkasa I No. 2 Kemayoran
10210 Jakarta
Indonesia
2014-06-17/0
phone +62 21 424 63 21
fax +62 21 424 67 03
mailto dodo.gunawan@bmkg.go.id
url
GAW function GAW Country Contact
station function Primary station contact

name Dr. Nicolas Bukowiecki
address Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI)
OFLA/106
5232 Villigen PSI
Switzerland
2014-03-12/2141914222
phone +41-56-310-2465
fax
mailto nicolas.bukowiecki@psi.ch
url http://www.psi.ch/lac/nicolas-bukowiecki
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Aerosol: Light absorption coefficient, total aerosol, Aerosol: Light scattering coefficient, total aerosol]

name Dr. Edward J. Dlugokencky
address NOAA-ERSL-GMD
325 Broadway
Boulder, CO 80305
United States
2014-05-27/-147256345
phone +1 303-497-6228
fax +1 303-497-6290
mailto ed.dlugokencky@noaa.gov
url
GAW function
station function

name Dr. Detlev Helmig
address Associate Research Professor Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) University of Colorado
1560 30th Street
Boulder, CO 80309-0450
United States
2013-01-24/-147256377
phone +1 (303) 492-2509
fax
mailto detlev@instaar.colorado.edu
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Reactive Gas: C2H6 (ethane), Reactive Gas: C3H8 (propane), Reactive Gas: i-C4H10 (2-methylpropane, iso-butane), Reactive Gas: i-C5H12 (2-methylbutane, iso-pentane), Reactive Gas: n-C4H10 (n-butane), Reactive Gas: n-C5H12 (n-pentane)]

name Dr. Joerg Klausen
address Federal Department of Home Affairs FDHA Federal Office of Meteorology and Climatology MeteoSwiss Measurements and Data
Operation Center 1 (OPC 1) P.O. Box 257
CH-8058 Zürich-Flughafen
Switzerland
2014-06-03/0
phone +41 58 460 92 23
fax +41 44 256 92 78
mailto joerg.klausen@meteoswiss.ch
url
GAW function
station function

name Mr. Edison Kurniawan
address BMKG
Komplek GAW Pasadama Tilatang Kamang Sumatera Barat PO BOX 11
Bukittinggi, West Sumatera 26100
Indonesia
2014-05-27/-147256345
phone +62 8121873935
+62 752 7446089
fax
mailto edison.kurniawan0503@gmail.com
url www.gaw-kototabang.com
GAW function
station function Primary station contact

name Mr. Agusta Kurniawan
address BMKG
Komplek GAW Pasadama
Agam, West Sumatra 26100
Indonesia
2014-05-27/-147256345
phone
fax
mailto agusta.kurniawan@bmkg.go.id
url www.gaw-kototabang.com
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Precipitation Chem: Acidity/Alkalinity, Precipitation Chem: Electric conductivity, Precipitation Chem: Hydrogen ion (H+) or pH]

name Mr. Alberth Christian Nahas
address BMKG
Komplek GAW Pasadama, Tilatang Kamang
Agam, West Sumatra 26100
Indonesia
2014-05-28/-147256345
phone +62 752 7446089
+62 813 49787470
fax +62 752 7446089
mailto alberth.christian@bmkg.go.id, alberth.christian@yahoo.com
url www.gaw-kototabang.com
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Aerosol: Mass concentration (coarse) or Mass PM10, Greenhouse Gas: N2O]

name Dr. Paul C. Novelli
address NOAA-ESRL-GMD
325 Broadway
Boulder, CO 80305
United States
2012-01-12/2141914043
phone +1 303-497-6774
fax +1 303-497-6290
mailto paul.c.novelli@noaa.gov
url
GAW function Member of SAG Reactive Gases
station function Measurement leader [Reactive Gas: CO]

name Ms. Nurhayati Nurhayati
address Chief, Agroclimate and Air Quality Assessment Sub Division Bureau of Meteorology and Geophysics
Jalan Angkasa I No. 2 P.O. Box 3540 JKT
Jakarta, Java 10720
Indonesia
2014-06-17/0
phone +62 21 424 63 21 ext. 139
fax +62 21 424 67 03
mailto noerha_04@yahoo.co.uk;noer@bmg.go.id
url
GAW function
station function Primary station contact

name Mr. Aulia Rinadi
address GAW Station Bukit Kototabang
Jl Raya Bukittinggi-Medan Km. 17 Palupuh
Bukittinggi, West Sumatra 26100
Indonesia
2014-05-26/248
phone
fax
mailto aulia.rinadi@bmkg.go.id
url www.gaw-kototabang.com
GAW function
station function

name Mr. Rinaldi Rinaldi
address BMKG
Simpang Pasadama, Tilatang Kamang PO BOX 11 Bukittinggi
Bukittinggi, West Sumatra 26100
Indonesia
2014-05-28/-147256345
phone
fax
mailto rinaldye@gmail.com
url www.gaw-kototabang.com
GAW function
station function

name Mr. Budi Satria
address Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) Meteorological and Geophysical Agency
Jl. Rakik No.16 , kelurahan Ladang cakiah - tigobaleh
Bukittinggi, West Sumatera 26135
Indonesia
2014-05-28/-147256345
phone +6282115545460
+628197529400
fax
mailto budi_bmg@yahoo.com
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Aerosol: Light backscattering coefficient, total aerosol, Aerosol: Light backscattering coefficient, total aerosol, Aerosol: Light scattering coefficient, total aerosol, Aerosol: Multiwavelength optical depth, total aerosol]

name Dr. Martin Steinbacher
address Empa
Ueberlandstrasse 129
8600 Dübendorf
Switzerland
2014-09-02/248
phone 00 41 58 765 4048
fax
mailto martin.steinbacher@empa.ch
url
GAW function QA/SAC
station function

name Mr. Harika Utri
address GAW Station Bukit Kototabang
Jl Raya Bukittinggi-Medan Km. 17 Palupuh
Bukittinggi, West Sumatra 26100
Indonesia
2014-06-03/0
phone
fax
mailto harika.utri@bmkg.go.id
url www.gaw-kototabang.com
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Meteo: Humidity, Meteo: Pressure, Meteo: Temperature, Meteo: Wind direction, Meteo: Wind speed]

name Mr. Bruce Vaughn
address University of Colorado Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR)
Campus box 450
Boulder, CO 80309-0450
United States
2006-06-12/0
phone +1-303-492-7985
fax +1-303-492-6388
mailto bruce.vaughn@colorado.edu
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Greenhouse Gas: CO2 [C-13], Greenhouse Gas: CO2 [O-18], Greenhouse Gas: N2O, Greenhouse Gas: SF6, Other Gas: H2]

name Mr. Andri Yosfi
address Badan Meteorologi dan Geofisika
Komplek GAW Pasadama
Bukittinggi, West Sumatera 26100
Indonesia
2014-05-28/-147256345
phone +62 812 191 4245
+62 752 7446089
fax +62 752 7446089
mailto yosfi_andri@yahoo.com
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Aerosol: Light scattering coefficient, total aerosol, Aerosol: Mass concentration (coarse) or Mass PM10, Aerosol: Mass concentration (total aerosol) or Mass TSP, Radiation: Diffuse solar radiation, Radiation: Direct solar radiation, Radiation: Global solar radiation, Radiation: UV Broadband, Radiation: UV Spectral]

name Dr. Christoph Zellweger
address Empa
Überlandstrasse 129
8600 Dübendorf
Switzerland
2014-05-26/248
phone +41-58-7654328
fax
mailto christoph.zellweger@empa.ch
url
GAW function World Calibration Centre
station function


References
Zellweger, Christoph, et al. (2011), System and Performance Audit of Surface Ozone, Methane, Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide at the Global GAW Station Bukit Kototabang, Indonesia, November 2011, WCC-Empa Report 11/4, http://gaw.empa.ch/audits/BKT_2011.pdf
Zellweger, Christoph, et al. (2008), System and Performance Audit of Surface Ozone and Carbon Monoxide, Global GAW Station Bukit Koto Tabang, Indonesia, July 2008, WCC-Empa Report 08/3, http://gaw.empa.ch/audits/BKT_2008.pdf
Zellweger, Christoph, et al. (2007), System and Performance Audit of Surface Ozone and Carbon Monoxide, Global GAW Station Bukit Koto Tabang, Indonesia, February 2007, WCC-Empa Report 07/1, gaw.empa.ch/audits/BKT_2007.pdf
Zellweger, C., et al. (2004), System and Performance Audit of Surface Ozone and Carbon Monoxide, Global GAW Station Bukit Koto Tabang, Indonesia February/March 2004, Empa-WCC Report 04/1, gaw.empa.ch/audits/BKT_2004.pdf
Renggono, F., et al. (2001), Precipitating clouds observed by 1.3-GHz boundary layer radars in equatorial Indonesia, in: , SPRINGER VERLAG KG, 889--898, www.ann-geophys.net/19/889/2001/angeo-19-889-2001.pdf
Widiyatmi, I., et al. (2001), Examination of 3-6 day Disturbances over Equatorial Indonesia Based on Boundary Layer Radar Observations during 1996-1999 at Bukittinggi, Serpong and Biak, , 79, 317--331, www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jmsj/79/1B/79_317/_article/-char/en
Zellweger, C., et al. (2001), System and Performance Audit of Surface Ozone Measurements, Global GAW Station Bukit Kototabang, July 2001, Empa-WCC Report 01/2, gaw.empa.ch/audits/BKT_2001.pdf
Herzog, A., et al. (1999), System and Performance Audit for Surface Ozone, Global GAW Station Bukit Koto Tabang, Indonesia, WCC-Empa Report 99/7, gaw.empa.ch/audits/BKT_1999.pdf
 
 
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