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Station Characteristics 2011-04-20/0
GAW ID WLG Mt. Waliguan (China)
WMO ID Global station in WMO RA II - Asia
station status established 1994-09-01 / full operation 36.28750°N 100.89630°E (3810 m a.s.l.)
time zone UTC+8
climate zone Dwc (Snow climate with dry winter and cool summer)  
other affiliations NOAA-ESRL/CCG, NOAA-ESRL/AERO(WLG)
description The station is situated on the top of Mt. Waligaun, on the Tibetan plateau in Western China. The annual average temperature is -0.9°C. The predominant wind directions are from SW to NW (summer) and from ESE to NE (winter). Yearly average wind speed is 4.6 m/s. Annual precipitation (mostly in summer months) averages 350 mm.
Mt. Waligaun is a remote site, located away from major industrial sources. The closest major settlement is Quiapuqia with a population of 30000, located 30 km to the west. The surrounding area is covered with grass (no trees), and the overall region is sparsely covered with vegetation.
The building was reconstructed in 1999.
Picture of Mt. Waliguan facility

Measurement Program
type data center parameter method contributor data available details
Ozone Surface ozone UV photometry [general] CAMS-IAC
WOUDC Total column ozone Brewer CAMS-IAC 1993-09-10 ~ 2012-10-31
Aerosol Light absorption coefficient, total aerosol Filter + light attenuation (aethalometer) CAMS-IAC
Light absorption coefficient, total aerosol Light absorption photometry CAMS-IAC
Light backscattering coefficient, total aerosol Nephelometry, integrating CAMS-IAC
Light scattering coefficient, total aerosol Nephelometry, integrating CAMS-IAC
WDCA Multiwavelength optical depth, total aerosol 2008-04-08 ~ 2012-12-31
Multiwavelength optical depth, total aerosol Pyrheliometer (direct solar, broadband) CAMS-IAC
Multiwavelength optical depth, total aerosol Sunphotometry/Filter Radiometry CAMS-IAC
Number concentration Condensation particle counter (CPC) CAMS-IAC
Greenhouse Gas WDCGG CH4 ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1990-08-05 ~ 2010-12-29
WDCGG CH4 [C-13] ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2001-07-01 ~ 2010-12-29
CO2 ## Continuous monitoring [general] CAMS-IAC
WDCGG CO2 ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1990-08-01 ~ 2010-12-29
CO2 GC-FID CAMS-IAC 1994-07-01 ~
WDCGG CO2 Non-dispersive IR (NDIR) CAMS-IAC 1994-01-01 ~ 2012-12-31
WDCGG CO2 [C-13] ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1990-08-01 ~ 2010-12-29
WDCGG CO2 [O-18] ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1990-08-01 ~ 2010-12-29
Reactive Gas WDCGG CO ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1990-08-01 ~ 2010-12-29
SO2 ## Filter sampling [general] CAMS-IAC
Other Gas WDCGG H2 ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1990-08-01 ~ 2005-07-01
Precipitation Chem Electric conductivity ## unknown/unspecified CAMS-IAC
Hydrogen ion (H+) or pH ## unknown/unspecified CAMS-IAC
Radiation Diffuse solar radiation Pyranometer (global solar, broadband) CAMS-IAC
Direct solar radiation Pyrheliometer (direct solar, broadband) CAMS-IAC
Global solar radiation Pyranometer (global solar, broadband) CAMS-IAC
Long-wave radiation (direction unspecified) Pyranometer (global solar, broadband) CAMS-IAC
Meteo Humidity ## unknown/unspecified CAMS-IAC 1994-07-01 ~
Pressure ## unknown/unspecified CAMS-IAC 1994-07-01 ~
Temperature ## unknown/unspecified CAMS-IAC 1994-07-01 ~
Trajectories FLEXTRA Empa 2005-01-01 ~ ongoing
Wind direction ## unknown/unspecified CAMS-IAC 1994-07-01 ~
Wind speed ## unknown/unspecified CAMS-IAC 1994-07-01 ~

Contact Person(s)
name Dr. Xiao-Ye Zhang
address Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS)
46 Zhong-Guan-Cun South Avenue
100081 Beijing
China
2012-01-12/2141914043
phone +86 10 6217 5931
fax +86 10 6840 8943
mailto xiaoye@cams.cma.gov.cn
url www.cams.cma.gov.cn
GAW function Joint Scientific Committee OPAG EPAC, GAW Country Contact, Member of SAG Aerosol
station function

name Mr. Rinadi Aulia
address GAW Station Bukit Kototabang
Jl Raya Bukittinggi-Medan Km. 17 Palupuh
Bukittinggi, West Sumatra 26100
Indonesia
2014-03-08/-147256507
phone
fax
mailto aulia.rinadi@bmkg.go.id
url www.gaw-kototabang.com
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Greenhouse Gas: CO2]

name Dr. Edward J. Dlugokencky
address NOAA-ERSL-GMD
325 Broadway
Boulder, CO 80305
United States
2014-05-27/-147256345
phone +1 303-497-6228
fax +1 303-497-6290
mailto ed.dlugokencky@noaa.gov
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Greenhouse Gas: CH4]

name Dr. Paul C. Novelli
address NOAA-ESRL-GMD
325 Broadway
Boulder, CO 80305
United States
2012-01-12/2141914043
phone +1 303-497-6774
fax +1 303-497-6290
mailto paul.c.novelli@noaa.gov
url
GAW function Member of SAG Reactive Gases
station function Measurement leader [Other Gas: H2, Reactive Gas: CO]

name Dr. Junying Sun
address Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS)
46 Zhong-Guan-Cun S. Ave.
100081 Beijing
China
2008-11-08/2141913580
phone 86-10-6840 7943
fax 86-10-6217 6414
mailto jysun@cams.cma.gov.cn
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Aerosol: Light absorption coefficient, total aerosol, Aerosol: Light backscattering coefficient, total aerosol, Aerosol: Light scattering coefficient, total aerosol, Aerosol: Multiwavelength optical depth, total aerosol, Aerosol: Number concentration]

name Mr. Bruce Vaughn
address University of Colorado Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR)
Campus box 450
Boulder, CO 80309-0450
United States
2006-06-12/0
phone +1-303-492-7985
fax +1-303-492-6388
mailto bruce.vaughn@colorado.edu
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Greenhouse Gas: CH4 [C-13], Greenhouse Gas: CO2 [C-13], Greenhouse Gas: CO2 [O-18]]

name Professor Lingxi Zhou
address Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences
46 Zhongguancun Nandajie
100081 Beijing
China
2009-03-26/249
phone +86-10-58995279
fax +86-10-62176414
mailto zhoulx@cams.cma.gov.cn
url
GAW function
station function Primary station contact, Measurement leader [Greenhouse Gas: CO2, Greenhouse Gas: CO2, Greenhouse Gas: CO2]


References
Zhang, F., et al. (2011), Evaluation of in situ measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide at Mount Waliguan, China, Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 11, 5195--5206, doi:10.5194/acp-11-5195-2011, http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/5195/2011/
Zellweger, C., et al. (2009), System and Performance Audit of Surface Ozone, Carbon Monoxide, Methane and Nitrous Oxide and at the GAW Global Station Mt. Waliguan and the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences (CAMS), China, June 2009, WCC-Empa Report 9/2, http://gaw.empa.ch/audits/WLG_2009.pdf
Cheng, H., et al. (2007), Organochlorine pesticides, polybrominated biphenyl ethers and lead isotopes during the spring time at the Waliguan Baseline Observatory, northwest China: Implication for long-range atmospheric transport, Atmospheric Environment, 41, 4734--4747
Ding, A. and Wang, T. (2006), Influence of stratosphere-to-troposphere exchange on the seasonal cycle of surface ozone at Mount Waliguan in western China, Geophys. Res. Lett, 33, www.cse.polyu.edu.hk/~cetwang/_Publications/2006_GRL_Ding.pdf
Zellweger, Christoph, et al. (2004), System and Performance Audit of Surface Ozone Carbon Monoxide and Methane at the Global GAW Station Mt. Waliguan, China, October 2004, WCC-Empa Report 04/3, gaw.empa.ch/audits/WLG_2004.pdf
ZHOU, L., et al. (2003), The impact of local winds and long-range transport on the continuous carbon dioxide record at Mount Waliguan, China, Tellus B, 55, 145--158
Zellweger, C., et al. (2000), System and Performance Audit of Surface Ozone and Carbon Monoxide at the China GAW Baseline Observatory Waliguan Mountain (CGAWBO), WCC-Empa Report 00/3, gaw.empa.ch/audits/WLG_2000.pdf
 
 
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