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Station Characteristics 2006-06-26/-147256467
GAW ID SUM Summit (Denmark)
WMO ID Jan-17 Regional station in WMO RA VI - Europe
station status established 1989 / full operation 72.58000°N 38.48000°W (3238 m a.s.l.)
time zone UTC-3 www.geosummit.org
climate zone EF (Frost climate)  
other affiliations NOAA-ESRL/CCG, NDACC
description The Greenland Environmental Observatory at Summit (GEOSummit) is a year-round Arctic sampling station funded by the National Science Foundation. GEOSummit is located at the top of the Greenland Ice Sheet (72º N, 38º W) and provides unique opportunities for investigation of atmospheric processes.

In 1993 the GISP 2 drilling project completed drilling 3054 m. of ice. Beginning the following year and continuing to the present, intensive field campaigns were conducted at the site to characterize the atmosphere-to-firn dynamics in order to enable more comprehensive analysis of the ice core record. A baseline measurement program was established in 2003 to provide year round measurements of key site-specific variables.

Currently the suite of baseline measurements available to researchers includes station meteorology, accumulation measurements from a 100-stake array and a 12 km transect, weekly surface snow chemistry, monthly snowpit chemistry and stratigraphy, and filter sampled radionuclides. Also available are aerosols measured continuously with an eight-drum impactor sampler. NOAA Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (NOAA-CMDL) instrumentation is onsite to provide continuous ozone, black carbon, carbon cycle gas, and greenhouse gas sampling. Flasks are collected weekly for carbon cycle gasses and halocarbon flasks are collected bi-weekly.
Picture of Summit facility

Measurement Program
type data center parameter method contributor data available details
Ozone WDCGG Surface ozone UV photometry [general] NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2000-06-01 ~ 2014-04-30
NDACC Vertical ozone profile ## Sonde NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2005-02-12 ~ 2014-10-16
Vertical ozone profile ECC Sonde unknown
Aerosol WDCA Light absorption coefficient, total aerosol 2011-05-06 ~ 2012-01-01
WDCA Light absorption coefficient, total aerosol 2011-01-01 ~ 2011-05-06
WDCA Light backscattering coefficient, total aerosol 2011-01-01 ~ 2012-01-01
WDCA Light scattering coefficient, total aerosol 2011-01-01 ~ 2012-01-01
Major chemical components (size fractionated) Multistage impactor unknown
Major inorganic components (coarse) Multistage impactor unknown
Mass concentration (size fractionated) Multistage impactor unknown
Mass concentration (total aerosol) or Mass TSP Multistage impactor unknown
Greenhouse Gas WDCGG C2Cl3F3 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, CFC-113) GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1998-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
WDCGG C2Cl3F3 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, CFC-113) ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-01-01 ~ 2013-08-19
WDCGG C2H2F4 (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, HFC-134a) GC-MS NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-06-20 ~ 2013-08-19
C2H3Cl2F (1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane, HCFC-141b) GC-MS unknown
WDCGG C2H3ClF2 (1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, HCFC-142b) ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-06-20 ~ 2013-08-19
WDCGG C2H4F2 (1,1-difluoroethane, HFC-152a) GC-MS NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-06-20 ~ 2013-08-19
WDCGG CBrClF2 (Halon 1211) GC-MS NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-06-20 ~ 2013-08-19
WDCGG CBrClF2 (Halon 1211) GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1998-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
WDCGG CCl2F2 (dichlorodifluoromethane, CFC-12) GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1998-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
WDCGG CCl2F2 (dichlorodifluoromethane, CFC-12) ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-01-01 ~ 2013-08-19
WDCGG CCl3F (trichlorofluoromethane, CFC-11) ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-01-01 ~ 2013-08-19
WDCGG CCl3F (trichlorofluoromethane, CFC-11) GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1998-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
WDCGG CCl4 GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1998-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
WDCGG CCl4 ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-01-01 ~ 2013-08-19
WDCGG CH3CCl3 (1,1,1-trichloroethane) GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1998-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
WDCGG CH3CCl3 (1,1,1-trichloroethane) ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-01-01 ~ 2013-08-19
WDCGG CH4 ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1997-06-23 ~ 2013-12-30
WDCGG CHClF2 (chlorodifluoromethane, HCFC-22) ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-06-20 ~ 2013-08-19
WDCGG CO2 ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1997-06-01 ~ 2013-12-30
WDCGG CO2 [C-13] ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1997-06-01 ~ 2012-07-17
WDCGG CO2 [O-18] ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1997-06-01 ~ 2012-07-17
WDCGG N2O ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-01-01 ~ 2013-12-01
WDCGG N2O GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1998-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
WDCGG SF6 GC-ECD NOAA-ESRL-GMD 1998-01-01 ~ 2014-04-15
WDCGG SF6 ## Flask sampling NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-01-01 ~ 2013-08-19
Reactive Gas WDCGG C2Cl4 GC-MS NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2009-03-10 ~ 2009-09-07
WDCGG C2H6 (ethane) GC-FID NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-10-18 ~ 2013-08-05
C3H6 (propene) ## Flask sampling unknown
WDCGG C3H8 (propane) GC-FID NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-10-18 ~ 2013-08-05
WDCGG CH2Cl2 (dichloromethane) GC-MS NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-06-20 ~ 2013-08-19
WDCGG CH3Br (methylbromide) GC-MS NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-06-20 ~ 2013-08-19
WDCGG CH3Cl (methylchloride) GC-MS NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-06-20 ~ 2013-08-19
CHCl3 (chloroform) GC-MS unknown
CO ## Flask sampling unknown
WDCGG i-C4H10 (2-methylpropane, iso-butane) GC-FID NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-10-18 ~ 2013-08-05
WDCGG i-C5H12 (2-methylbutane, iso-pentane) GC-FID NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-10-18 ~ 2013-08-05
WDCGG n-C4H10 (n-butane) GC-FID NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-10-18 ~ 2013-08-05
WDCGG n-C5H12 (n-pentane) GC-FID NOAA-ESRL-GMD 2004-10-18 ~ 2013-08-05
NMHC ## Flask sampling unknown
Other Gas H2 GC-HgO reduction/UV absorption unknown
Precipitation Chem Ammonium (NH4+) Ion Chromatography (IC) [general] unknown
Calcium (Ca++) Ion Chromatography (IC) [general] unknown
Chloride (Cl-) Ion Chromatography (IC) [general] unknown
Magnesium (Mg++) Ion Chromatography (IC) [general] unknown
Nitrate (NO3-) Ion Chromatography (IC) [general] unknown
Potassium (K+) Ion Chromatography (IC) [general] unknown
Sodium (Na+) Ion Chromatography (IC) [general] unknown
Sulphate (SO4=), total Ion Chromatography (IC) [general] unknown
Radiation Diffuse solar radiation ## unknown/unspecified unknown
Direct solar radiation ## unknown/unspecified unknown
Global solar radiation Pyranometer (global solar, broadband) unknown
Long-wave radiation (direction unspecified) ## unknown/unspecified unknown
UV Broadband ## unknown/unspecified unknown
NDACC UV Erythemally weighted UV spectrometry/radiometry Biospherical 2004-08-15 ~ 2012-11-22
WOUDC UV Multiband UV radiometry NSF 2004-08-12 ~ 2010-11-18
UV Multiband ## unknown/unspecified unknown
WOUDC UV Spectral UV radiometry NSF 2004-08-15 ~ 2010-11-24
UV Spectral ## unknown/unspecified unknown
Radio Nuclide Beryllium [Be-7] Filter sampling + gamma spectrometry unknown
Lead [Pb-210] Radiochemical Methods [general] unknown
Radon [Rn-222] Radiochemical Methods [general] unknown
Meteo Aerological soundings ## Sonde unknown
Humidity Hygrometer unknown
Pressure Barometer/Pressure sensor unknown
Pressure Barometer/Pressure sensor unknown
Temperature Thermometer/-element unknown
Temperature Thermometer/-element unknown
Wind direction Wind vane unknown
Wind direction Wind vane unknown
Wind speed Anemometer [general] unknown
Wind speed Anemometer [general] unknown

Contact Person(s)
name Mr. Germar Bernhard
address Biospherical Instruments Inc.
5340 Riley St.
San Diego, CA 92110
United States
2011-02-11/2141913886
phone +1 619 686 1888
fax
mailto bernhard@biospherical.com
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Radiation: UV Erythemally weighted]

name Mr. John F. Burkhart
address Greenland Environmental Observatory
4225 N Hospital Rd
Atwater, CA 95301
United States
2009-02-12/-147256320
phone +47 96 82 50 11
fax
mailto sco@summitcamp.org
url
GAW function
station function Primary station contact

name Mr. Geoffrey S. Dutton
address Halocarbons and Other Atmosphere Trace Species Group (HATS)/NOAA/ESRL Global Monitoring Division
325 Broadway R/GMD1
Boulder, Colorado 80305-3328
United States
2008-12-16/-147256320
phone +1-303-497-6224
fax +1-303-497-6290
mailto geoff.dutton@noaa.gov
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Greenhouse Gas: C2Cl3F3 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, CFC-113), Greenhouse Gas: CBrClF2 (Halon 1211), Greenhouse Gas: CCl2F2 (dichlorodifluoromethane, CFC-12), Greenhouse Gas: CCl3F (trichlorofluoromethane, CFC-11), Greenhouse Gas: CCl4, Greenhouse Gas: CH3CCl3 (1,1,1-trichloroethane), Greenhouse Gas: N2O, Greenhouse Gas: SF6]

name Dr. James W. Elkins
address NOAA ESRL Global Monitoring Division
325 Broadway R/GMD
Boulder, CO 80305-332
United States
2011-01-17/0
phone +1 (303) 497-6224
fax +1 (303) 497-6290
mailto James.W.Elkins@noaa.gov
url www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/hats/personnel/elkins/elkins1.html
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Greenhouse Gas: C2Cl3F3 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, CFC-113), Greenhouse Gas: C2H2F4 (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, HFC-134a), Greenhouse Gas: C2H3ClF2 (1-chloro-1,1-difluoroethane, HCFC-142b), Greenhouse Gas: C2H4F2 (1,1-difluoroethane, HFC-152a), Greenhouse Gas: CBrClF2 (Halon 1211), Greenhouse Gas: CCl2F2 (dichlorodifluoromethane, CFC-12), Greenhouse Gas: CCl3F (trichlorofluoromethane, CFC-11), Greenhouse Gas: CCl4, Greenhouse Gas: CH3CCl3 (1,1,1-trichloroethane), Greenhouse Gas: CHClF2 (chlorodifluoromethane, HCFC-22), Greenhouse Gas: N2O, Greenhouse Gas: SF6, Reactive Gas: C2Cl4, Reactive Gas: CH2Cl2 (dichloromethane), Reactive Gas: CH3Br (methylbromide), Reactive Gas: CH3Cl (methylchloride)]

name Dr. Detlev Helmig
address Associate Research Professor Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR) University of Colorado
1560 30th Street
Boulder, CO 80309-0450
United States
2013-01-24/-147256377
phone +1 (303) 492-2509
fax
mailto detlev@instaar.colorado.edu
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Reactive Gas: C2H6 (ethane), Reactive Gas: C3H8 (propane), Reactive Gas: i-C4H10 (2-methylpropane, iso-butane), Reactive Gas: i-C5H12 (2-methylbutane, iso-pentane), Reactive Gas: n-C4H10 (n-butane), Reactive Gas: n-C5H12 (n-pentane)]

name Mr. Bryan Johnson
address NOAA/ESRL Global Monitoring Division
325 Broadway R/GMD1
CO 80305-3328 Boulder
United States
2011-08-11/2141913899
phone
fax
mailto Bryan.Johnson@noaa.gov
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Ozone: Vertical ozone profile]

name Mr. Brian A. Vasel
address National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Earth System Research Laboratory
325 Broadway R/GMD1
Boulder, Colorado 80305
United States
2012-02-01/2141914043
phone 303-497-6655
fax
mailto brian.vasel@noaa.gov
url
GAW function
station function

name Mr. Bruce Vaughn
address University of Colorado Institute of Arctic and Alpine Research (INSTAAR)
Campus box 450
Boulder, CO 80309-0450
United States
2006-06-12/0
phone +1-303-492-7985
fax +1-303-492-6388
mailto bruce.vaughn@colorado.edu
url
GAW function
station function Measurement leader [Greenhouse Gas: CO2 [C-13], Greenhouse Gas: CO2 [O-18]]


References
Jacobi, H.W., et al. (2004), Reactive trace gases measured in the interstitial air of surface snow at Summit, Greenland, Atmospheric Environment, 38, 1687--1697
Helmig, D., et al. (2002), Ozone and meteorological boundary-layer conditions at Summit, Greenland, during 3--21 June 2000, Atmospheric Environment, 36, 2595--2608
Honrath, RE, et al. (2002), Vertical fluxes of NOx, HONO, and HNO3 above the snowpack at Summit, Greenland, Atmospheric Environment, 36, 2629--2640
Slater, JF, et al. (2002), Distinguishing the relative contribution of fossil fuel and biomass combustion aerosols deposited at Summit, Greenland through isotopic and molecular characterization of insoluble carbon, Atmospheric Environment, 36, 4463--4477
Yang, J., et al. (2002), Impacts of snowpack emissions on deduced levels of OH and peroxy radicals at Summit, Greenland, Atmospheric Environment, 36, 2523--2534, www.chem.purdue.edu/shepson/publications/Yang%202002.pdf
Kahl, J.D.W., et al. (1999), Decadal-scale variability in long-range atmospheric transport to the Summit of the Greenland Ice Sheet, Geophysical Research Letters, 26, 481--484, www.uwm.edu/~kahl/Research/Kahl_et_al_1999.pdf
Kahl, J.D.W., et al. (1997), Air mass trajectories to Summit, Greenland: A 44-year climatology and some episodic events, JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-ALL SERIES-, 102, 26--26
Dibb, J.E., et al. (1996), Biomass burning signatures in the atmosphere and snow at Summit, Greenland: An event on 5 August 1994, Atmospheric Environment, 30, 553--561
Bergin, MH, et al. (1995), The contributions of snow, fog, and dry deposition to the summer flux of anions and cations at Summit, Greenland, Journal of Geophysical Research. D. Atmospheres, 100, 16275--16288
 
 
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